The History of the refrigerator
Today in every home "settled" the refrigerator. And this habitual appliance over a hundred years, and its history is more exciting than many novels.
the Invention of generators
Before cooling and storing food people were ice and snow. But by the nineteenth century it became clear that for efficient storage required fundamentally different devices capable of generating cold.
first of all, this required an artificial ice. In 1851 the vapor compression unit for production were designed and patented by American physician John Gori. The invention has been promising: the author proposed to use it not only for the production of ice, but also for cooling the air in the premises.
"the Process of cooling or freezing of liquids by air injection into the reservoir of heat, compression by injecting water, discharge of compressed air to extend in a car submerged in a vessel with a non-freezing fluid, which is continuously returned into the tank and which serves as the environment, absorbing the heat taken away from the water, which must be a refrigerated or frozen, and transferred to the expanding air.
In 1860, the Frenchman Ferdinand carré patented refrigeration other type of installation – absorption. Boiling of ammonia at low pressure was accompanied by absorption of heat from the water, resulting in the received ice. Structurally absorption machine was easier precompressor Gori, and ammonia, despite the high toxicity were excellent refrigerant – the performance of the device reaches 200 kg of ice per hour!
In 1876 in Scotland was launched on the sailing-vessel Dunedin, which proved the possibility of delivery of frozen meat from New Zealand to England, experienced a food shortage.
However, the vapor compression and absorption ice generators tasks constant cooling of air in a confined space is not solved: they were no refrigerators, and freezers.
the Prototype of the modern refrigerator was invented by Carl von Linde in 1876. The development immediately supported Breweries, slaughterhouses and warehouses – the first refrigerator gained commercial success.
In 1894, the Frenchman Marcel Audiffren developed for refrigerators mechanical prefix; in 1910 it has integrated the motor. The General Electric company began to produce refrigerators suitable for use in the home. Noisy engine was located at a distance from the refrigerating chamber – in the basement or in another room, and the fridge was compact and even elegant – lockers were covered with wooden panels as expensive furniture. Cost the first products General Electric is very expensive (like two cars!) and produced in a single copy.
the First refrigerator adapted for kitchen – safe, durable, assembled in a single housing and insulated refrigeration unit appeared in 1926. Just a few months after this began the mass production model of the Monitor-Top. This "first available refrigerator” with a useful volume of the chamber 140–200 l looked like a wardrobe streamlined shape and was provided with a pedal that allows you to open the door without hands.
the Novelty was popular, it was leased to those who could not afford such a purchase. Almost immediately Bosch has released a cylindrical fridge-drum.
In 1928, American chemist Thomas Mildly from General Motors synthesized gas freon, it is safer than ammonia. Freon is massively used in the production of almost until the end of the twentieth century, until in 1987 the international community has not recognized the negative impact of CFCs on the ozone layer. Then the freon were replaced by other refrigerants.
Since the 1940s, the device refrigerators became more complicated. There is a freezer. They were located above, below or to the side of the main camera. These options layout called "Asian", "European" and "American", and each has its own advantages and disadvantages. In "Asian" and "European" version of freezer can be placed inside the fridge, and separately, has its own compressor. "American" refrigerators side-by-side take up much space and are more expensive, but useful volume is much more – up to thousands of liters.
the industry starts producing freezers for long transportation and storage of products, these products were in demand in the field of trade and transport. Later appeared appeared refrigerators-Mart for grocery stores. The development and complication of refrigerators
From the second half of the twentieth century in refrigerators appears automation - system air circulation No Frost, so that the walls of the refrigerating chamber does not appear the ice and the whole space is the same temperature.
In 1971 Liebherr invented the refrigerator with electronic temperature control chamber, and after 5 years provided their models digital display.
Panasonic in 1975 introduced the first refrigerator with inverter control. In a traditional refrigerator compressor, cooled chamber to the desired temperature, switches off, and when it is increased to a certain value on again. In inverting the fridge preset temperature is reached quickly and maintained constantly due to the gradual change of the capacity of the compressor. Inverter technology was later adopted by other companies.
Manufacturers of refrigerators hold a policy to increase the performance of their products and reduce the consumption of resources. Market leaders – Bosch, Electrolux, LG, Panasonic, Samsung ’ s already produce only the highest energy class – A+.
inside all refrigerator also changed significantly. Manufacturers strive to increase the useful volume of refrigerators and freezers and to divide the space inside both cameras to create a specific temperature zones. Each cell supports a different level of humidity that helps to keep the products in the best conditions. The smells do not fall out of the camera in the camera and not mixed. Helps in solving this task, the system is anti-bacterial biofilters, which is also present in almost every modern refrigerator. Now buy refrigerator easy, open google and write name fridge.
the Trend of the new century has been to improve not only the functionality but also the appearance of the refrigerator. So, General Electric, once released the first model of mass refrigerators, recently unveiled the device, the walls of which are attached to the decorative panel. You can paint, decorate leather, wood, marble, steel. While the design of the refrigerator and "stuffing" height – electronic display, sensors, temperature control and wlasnosci, quick freeze.
the Paneling of the door is available for almost all models built in refrigerators. Panels can be made of plastic, glass, metal, wood, leather, fur – no restrictions.
manufacturers are Experimenting not only with color but also with the form of the fridge. Designer Angelina, melos, for example, has proposed a modular design: the buyer decides how many modules they need, and collects them into the system, like children's blocks. Each "cube" equipped with its own control system and is designed for a specific type of products – wine, fruit and vegetables, frozen meat, etc. Today cheap refrigerator you may buy anywhere, however before this could only dream of. Сommercial refrigerator more expensive, but it have more function.
Some people decorate or paint the fridge. The easiest way is to stick to the metal doors of the magnet. By the way, collectors fridge magnets called metamagnetic. Probably the most impressive collection boasts Louise Greenfarm from Nevada – in her collection of more than 30 thousand magnets, 7 thousand of which are exhibited in the Museum of Guinness in Las Vegas. Now you can buy compact fridge and use for you.