Ozone layer

the Ozone layer (the ozone layer) covers the entire globe and is located at altitudes from 10 to 50 km With a maximum ozone concentration at a height of 20-25 km Saturation of the atmosphere ozone is constantly changing in any part of the planet, reaching a maximum in the spring in the polar region. First, the depletion of the ozone layer has attracted widespread public attention in 1985:; when over Antarctica was discovered space with reduced (50%) ozone, called "ozone дыры».ozon.jpg Since then, the measurement results confirm the widespread reduction of the ozone layer, almost the entire planet. For example, in Russia for the last 10 years, the concentration of the ozone layer has decreased by 4-6% in winter and C% in summer.

currently, the depletion of the ozone layer recognized by all as a serious threat to global environmental security. The decrease in the concentration of ozone weakens the ability of the atmosphere to protect вt:e life on earth from the harsh ultraviolet radiation (UV radiation). Living organisms are highly vulnerable to ultraviolet radiation, for the energy of one photon of these rays is sufficient to break chemical bonds in most organic molecules. Not by coincidence that in areas with low ozone numerous sunburn, an increase in the incidence of human skin cancer and other So, for example, according to some scientists - ECOLOGISTS, Russia at the current rate of depletion of the ozone layer will get cancer of the skin additional 6 million people. In addition to skin diseases may develop eye diseases (cataract, and others), suppression of the immune system, and so on

it was also Established that plants under the influence of ultraviolet radiation gradually lose their ability to photosynthesize, and violation of the life of the plankton breaks trophic biota aquatic eco-systems, and so on, Science is still not fully established, what are the main processes that violate the ozone layer. It is assumed both natural and anthropogenic origin ’ozone holes. The last according to most scientists. it is more likely and is associated with increased content chlorophenolates (freons). CFCs are widely used in industrial production and in everyday life (glamourati, solvents, sprays, aerosol packaging and others). Rising into the atmosphere, CFCs decompose with videleniem chlorine oxide, destructive acting on molecules of ozone.

According to the international environmental organization " Greenpeace , the main suppliers of chlorofluorocarbons (freons) are U.S. - 30,85%, Japan - 12,42; UK - 8,62 and Russia to 8.0%. The U.S. struck in the ozone layer "hole area of 7 million km2, Japan - 3 million km2, which is seven times more than the area of Japan. Recently in the United States and several Western countries built factories for the production of new types of hederagenin (HCFCs) with low potential destruction of the ozone layer ..

According to the Protocol the Montreal conference (1987), revised and then in London (1991) and Copenhagen (1992), provided for the reduction of emissions of chlorofluorocarbons by 1998, 50 %. In accordance with the RF Law " On environmental protection (2002) the protection of the ozone layer of the atmosphere from hazardous changes by regulating the production and use of substances that Deplete the ozone layer of the atmosphere, on the basis of international treaties of the Russian Federation and its law. In the future it is necessary to continue to solve the problem of protecting people from UV radiation, as many of the CFCs can remain in the atmosphere for hundreds of years.

a Number of scientists continue to insist on the natural origin of "the Ozone hole . Why some see in the natural variability of the ozone layer, the cyclic activity of the Sun, other associate these processes with rifting and degassing of the Earth. i.e., breakthrough in-depth gases (hydrogen, methane, nitrogen and others) through the rift faults.

Here is the opinion of one of the scientists:

Freons are used mainly as easily evaporating liquid in the production of porous materials and as a refrigerant in refrigeration. According to man - made freon hypothesis, the whole industrial freon enters the stratosphere, where at the height of 20-25 km is the ozone layer. In the stratosphere by the action of ultraviolet rays of the sun, chlorine, part of freon, react with ozone and destroy it. However, this hypothesis is a contradiction. So, the biggest ozone hole is over Antarctica, while the main sources of man-made CFCs are in the Northern hemisphere. Exchange between air masses of both hemispheres difficult that you have, in particular, in the study of the movement of the products of nuclear tests. In addition, man - made freon hypothesis does not give anything like accurate predictions, although there are accurate data on the location and number of industrial freon. Do you know about apple compressor ?

C. L. Syvorotkin developed an alternative hypothesis, according to which the ozone layer is reduced due to natural causes. It is known that the cycle of ozone destruction by chlorine is not the only one. There are also nitrogen and hydrogen cycles of ozone destruction. It is the hydrogen - main gas Land". The main reserves are concentrated in the core of the planet and through a system of deep faults (rift) enter the atmosphere. According to rough estimates, natural hydrogen in the tens of thousands of times greater than anthropogenic chlorine in the freon. However, the decisive factor in favor of the hydrogen hypothesis Syvorotkin C. L. believes that the foci of the ozone anomalies are always positioned above the centers of hydrogen degassing of the Earth.

System of rift zones of the Earth today are well studied by geologists, and it gives the opportunity to predict the location of the ozone holes. So the persistence of the ozone hole over Antarctica due to the fact that the main channels degassing - mid-ocean rift - converging around Antarctica and increase the hydrogen purge the atmosphere in the area. In addition, Antarctica is an active Erebus volcano with the largest gas emissions into the atmosphere. By the way, the American station McMurdo, watching the state of the atmosphere, is located at the foot of this volcano. Given the increase in seismic activity in the area of mid-ocean rift, C. L. Syvorotkin predicted the formation of large ozone hole over the Equatorial Eastern Pacific (January 1998).

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